Tax Credit

When navigating the complex terrain of taxes, it can be easy to overlook some of the opportunities offered to ease financial burdens. One such opportunity is the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), a federal tax credit that serves as an incentive for employers to hire individuals from certain target groups. Established in 1996, the WOTC program seeks to promote workplace diversity and encourage economic self-sufficiency for those facing significant barriers to employment.

Under the umbrella of the Department of Labor (DOL), the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) is not merely a tax benefit. It is, at its core, a program conceived out of social responsibility, aiming to uplift and integrate disadvantaged segments of the population into the workforce. By offering substantial tax credits to employers who hire and retain eligible employees, the meaning of WOTC fosters a business environment that is more inclusive and diverse.

Eligibility Requirements for WOTC


To be eligible, the new employee must belong to one of the designated target groups specified by the IRS, which include veterans, ex-felons, and individuals receiving certain types of public assistance, among others. The employee must also be over the age of 18 and under 40 at the time of hire.

Beyond the employee’s personal characteristics, there are additional requirements related to their employment. For instance, the new hire must work a minimum of 120 hours in the first year of employment for the employer to be eligible for the tax credit. If the employee meets these criteria and the employer submits all necessary paperwork within 28 days of the employee’s start date, the employer could be eligible to claim the WOTC.

The eligibility requirements for the WOTC are meticulously structured to benefit those who face systemic barriers to gainful employment. By satisfying these criteria, employers can not only enrich their workforce diversity but also enjoy significant tax savings, making the WOTC a win-win opportunity for both parties.

Targeted Groups Covered by WOTC


The WOTC program extends to several targeted groups, each of which faces unique challenges in the job market. These groups include qualified veterans, individuals residing in empowerment zones or rural renewal counties, and those participating in certain government programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Other targeted groups encompass vocational rehabilitation referrals, ex-felons, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients, and long-term family assistance recipients.

Each targeted group comes with its own set of specific eligibility criteria. For example, a veteran must have a service-connected disability, have been unemployed for a specified period, or have received SNAP benefits for their employer to qualify. Conversely, an ex-felon must be hired within a year of being convicted or released from prison.

Understanding these nuanced eligibility requirements for each targeted group is paramount for businesses to correctly identify qualifying hires and successfully claim the WOTC. It also contributes to a broader understanding of the societal challenges that the WOTC program is designed to address.

Application and Certification Process


The process to claim the WOTC involves a two-step application and certification protocol. The first step requires the employer to file IRS Form 8850, “Pre-Screening Notice and Certification Request for the Work Opportunity Credit,” within 28 days of the employee’s start date. This form serves to pre-screen the employee’s eligibility for the credit and must be submitted to the State Workforce Agency (SWA).

In addition to Form 8850, the employer must also submit the Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration (ETA) Form 9061, or “Individual Characteristics Form (ICF).” If the SWA determines the new hire meets the eligibility requirements, it will issue a certification to the employer, confirming the employee qualifies for the WOTC.

This seemingly bureaucratic process is integral to ensuring the integrity of the WOTC program. Ensuring that only eligible employers and employees benefit from this tax credit is crucial to maintaining its societal impact and financial viability.

Benefits and Incentives for Employers

By incentivizing the hiring of individuals who face significant hurdles in finding employment, the WOTC program offers several compelling benefits to employers. First and foremost, it provides substantial tax savings. Depending on the target group and hours worked an employer can claim a credit of up to $9,600 per eligible employee.

Beyond the financial incentives, the WOTC program also encourages a more diverse and inclusive workforce. By hiring individuals from the target groups, businesses can enrich their teams with a wide range of experiences, perspectives, and skills. Moreover, it gives employers an active role in fostering social change and driving economic growth, all while reducing their tax liabilities.

Thus, the program serves as a powerful tool for employers, offering both tangible monetary benefits and intangible societal advantages. Embracing the WOTC can transform a company’s hiring practices, workforce composition, and overall corporate image.

Determining the Tax Credit Amount

Men calculating tax credit

The calculation of the WOTC depends on three primary factors: the target group to which the employee belongs, the number of hours the employee works in the first year, and the employee’s wages during that period. The tax credit is typically 25% of the qualified employee’s first-year wages if they worked at least 120 hours, and 40% if they worked at least 400 hours.

To illustrate, let’s say a business hires a veteran (who is a member of a target group) who works 500 hours in the first year and earns $10,000. In this case, the employer would be eligible for a WOTC of 40% of $10,000, which equates to a $4,000 tax credit.

However, there are caps on the credit amount for each target group. For instance, for veterans and the long-term unemployed, the cap is $9,600, while for summer youth employees, the cap is at $1,200. Knowing how to correctly calculate the WOTC can maximize an employer’s tax savings while ensuring compliance with IRS rules.

Reporting and Record-Keeping Obligations


Ensuring proper reporting and record-keeping is pivotal to claiming the WOTC and maintaining compliance with the IRS. When claiming the credit on their federal tax return, employers must include IRS Form 5884, “Work Opportunity Credit.” This form allows the IRS to verify the credit calculation and ensure the claimed credit aligns with the SWA certification.

Furthermore, employers must maintain records demonstrating the eligibility of each employee for whom the credit is claimed. These records include the SWA certification and documentation substantiating the employee’s membership in a targeted group. Proper record-keeping practices not only facilitate the claiming process but also help protect the employer in the event of an audit.

In essence, good record-keeping is not just about regulatory compliance; it also provides historical data that can help businesses optimize their WOTC benefits over time. It forms the basis for financial forecasting, and strategic hiring decisions, and can even serve as a marketing tool to showcase a company’s commitment to workforce diversity and social responsibility.


In conclusion, the Work Opportunity Tax Credit is a multi-faceted program that offers more than just tax savings. It provides a powerful means for businesses to drive social change while enhancing their bottom line. By demystifying the WOTC, we can better appreciate its capacity to bridge the gap between business and social responsibility.